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Jul 25 - 3 min read

The Complete Guide to Structural Defect Investigation and Remediation: A Palantir Consulting Insight

The Complete Guide to Structural Defect Investigation and Remediation: A Palantir Consulting Insight
Structural defects in buildings can range from minor cracks to major structural failures. As a builder, property owner, or facilities manager, being able to identify and properly address structural issues is critical for safety, compliance, and avoiding costly repairs down the road. This guide from Palantir Consulting covers everything you need to know about investigating and fixing structural defects.
We’ll provide an overview of common structural defects, their causes, how to spot them, steps for thorough investigation, and proven methods for remediation. With the right approach and experts on your team, you can tackle structural defects decisively and help ensure the ongoing integrity of your buildings.

Common Types of Structural Defects

Structural defects can occur in any building element that supports loads, including:

  • Foundations - settlement cracks, sinking, heaving
  • Walls - cracking, bowing, deterioration
  • Floors - uneven surfaces, cracking, sagging
  • Roofs - sagging, deformation, leaking
  • Joints - separation, deterioration, leakage
  • Load - bearing elements - cracks, buckling, misalignment

The specific signs and severity depends on the materials, age, loading, and other factors. Some defects like cracking may seem minor but can lead to bigger issues if left unaddressed.

Causes of Structural Defects

Defects arise from a variety of causes, including:

  • Design flaws - incorrect structural calculations, unsuitable materials specified
  • Construction defects - deviations from design, poor workmanship
  • Wear and tear - deterioration over time, weathering, leaks
  • Settlement - consolidation, expansion/contraction of soils, erosion
  • Loading - exceedance of original design loads, unanticipated loads
  • Chemical - reactions, corrosion, mold growth
  • Extreme events - earthquakes, floods, tornadoes

Proper investigation is required to determine the root causes of observed defects before repair methods can be selected.

How to Identify Structural Defects

Many defects have visible signs that can be inspected, such as:

  • Cracks - in walls, floors, foundations, joints
  • Leaks - through walls, joints, roofs, windows
  • Settlement - sloping floors, walls out of plumb, cracks
  • Vibration - floors, walls shake when loaded
  • Sound - cracks, pops, when structure moves
  • Alignment - doors/windows out of square, beams sagging

But not all structural issues have obvious external signs. Engineers have methods to identify potential hidden defects, including:

  • Damage mapping - probe walls, floors for soft areas
  • Infrastructure review - inspect condition of hidden elements
  • Testing - concrete strength, steel corrosion, soil compaction
  • Monitoring - install sensors to detect movement

Step-by-Step Guide to Structural Defect Investigation

A systematic approach is required to fully investigate structural issues:

  1. Document visible defects - map locations, record with photos
  2. Review original plans and specs - understand intended design
  3. Perform diagnostic testing - assess materials, hidden elements
  4. Analyze root causes - determine failure sequence and modes
  5. Quantify extent of defects - model structural response
  6. Develop repair approach - target fixes to root causes
  7. Specify repair methods - select optimal remediation strategies
  8. Develop monitoring plan - detect changes in structural performance

Our engineering team follows proven processes refined over thousands of investigations. We work collaboratively with owners and contractors to investigate defects and develop tailored repair recommendations.

Techniques for Remediating Structural Defects

Many options are available for remediating different structural defects:

  1. Crack injection - seals cracks against water and restores strength
  2. Carbon fiber reinforcing - provides supplemental strengthening
  3. Steel bracing - supports overloaded structural elements
  4. Shotcrete - encases and strengthens deteriorated concrete
  5. Epoxy injection - seals foundation cracks and fills voids
  6. Underpinning - stabilizes settled foundations
  7. Waterproofing - prevents leaks causing deterioration
  8. Joint repointing - restores failed mortar joints
  9. Bearing replacement - fixes distressed load transfer points

The optimal solutions are selected based on the specific causes identified during investigation. In some cases, major reconstruction may be needed. In others, minor repairs can arrest deterioration and restore structural capacity.

Partnering with Experts

Structural defects require specialized expertise across investigation, design, and construction. Palantir Consulting offers fully integrated services for defect assessment, repair planning, contractor selection support, and construction administration. Our team of structural engineers and building professionals will provide complete solutions tailored to your specific needs.

For new buildings, we also offer quality assurance reviews and testing during construction to prevent defects. Contact us today to discuss your project.


Structural defects can present major risks if not addressed promptly and properly. By understanding common defects and their causes, being able to spot signs of distress, following comprehensive investigation procedures, and implementing targeted repairs, you can keep your buildings safe, compliant, and performing as intended. Palantir Consulting has the expertise to guide you through the process from initial assessment to final repairs.